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Dr Warren Mansell BAHons (Cantab) DPHil DClinPsy CPsychol

Photograph of Warren Mansell

Reader in Clinical Psychology

Awarded the May Davidson Award 2011 by the British Psychological Society DCP, marking an outstanding contribution to clinical psychology in the first 10 years since qualifiying as a clinical psychologist. To view the Award Lecture, go to

For an overview of Perceptual Control Theory, go to

Memberships of Committees and Professional Bodies

  • Co-chair of the Scientific Committee of the Annual Conference of the British Association of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP) 2008-2013
  • Member of the Scientific Committee of the Annual Conference of the British BABCP 2000-2013
  • Chair of the BABCP Special Interest Group on Control Theory
  • Member of the British Psychological Society; Chartered Clinical Psychologist
  • Member of the University of Manchester Division of Clinical Psychology Research Subcommittee
  • Member of the Scientific Committee of the World Congress of Cognitive Therapy Barcelona 2007
  • Member of the Scientific Committee of the World Congress of Cognitive Therapy Boston 2010
  • Member of the Editorial Board of the Journal, Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice
  • Member of the Editorial Board of the Journal, Cognition and Emotion
  • Associate Editor of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • Associate Editor of British Journal of Clinical Psychology
  • Member of the Conference Referee Panel of the International Conference on Cognitive Modelling (ICCM 2009)
  • Member of Association of Psychological Science


  • Cognitive processes in bipolar disorder
  • Cognitive behavioural processes across psychological disorders (The Transdiagnostic Approach)
  • Perceptual Control Theory
  • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - theory, research, practice & dissemination


  • University of Manchester Distinguished Achievement Award - Teacher of the Year 2008 - Faculty of Medical and Human Science
  • Module Leader - Advance Research Methods - MRes in Psychology
  • Teaching on CBT, transdiagnostic approaches to mental health and perceptual control theory at undergraduate, masters and doctorate levels


Following a PhD at University of Oxford, and a Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at the Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London, I came to the University of Manchester where I am currently a Reader in Clinical Psychology. The focus of my research is psychological approaches to bipolar disorder, transdiagnostic interventions for mental health problems (e.g. A Transdiagnostic Approach to CBT using Method of Levels Therapy), and Perceptual Control Theory. 


My research takes many forms, but I now subscribe to an ideal for research in the behavioural sciences influenced by the work of William T. Powers (1926-2013) and his collaborators on Perceptual Control Theory (PCT; Powers et al., 1960a, b; Powers, 1973, 2005, 2008). Below are a number of propositions of PCT that inform theory, research and practice in the behavioural, social and life sciences: 

1) Humans and other animals purposefully seek out, select, control, manipulate and influence their own perceptual input from the environment. This is the function of what we call 'behaviour'. Behaviours are not triggered, learned or planned, but emerge dynamically through constraints within the current moment in an attempt to control current perception. 

2) The default functioning of humans and other animals is an unbroken system of parallel, hierarchically organised, continuous, 'closed' loops between perception, comparison with reference values for that perception, action, the environment, and (again) perception. Therefore, it is impossible to 'independently manipulate' thoughts, feelings, behaviours, physiology or the environment.

3) Despite all behaviour being purposeful, control can be executed automatically (i.e. outside 'conscious awareness'), and this process can be understood in quantitative terms that facilitate computer modelling and prototype testing of models of an individual to compare with the real system. The functioning of an accurate model of an individual, generated by a correct theory, would have a near perfect match with the real system.

4) Given the above propositions, empirical research that studies groups of individuals and aims to examine the statistical relationship between 'Independent Variables (IVs)' in the environment and 'Dependent Variables (DVs)'  - measured as behaviour or other observable properties of individuals - has limited validity. This linear model is ideal for physical systems that do not control (such as a moving object), but do not apply to living systems (or control systems designed by humans), because of their intrinsically purposeful nature. 

5) Researchers can use an alternative research paradigm - the 'Test for the Controlled Variable', which examines the perceptual variables that an individual is controlling using their behaviour through its manipulation of the environment, despite other aspects of the environment that disturb these attempts at control. There are many published papers demonstrating this approach, even though the 'IV-DV' approach currently dominates. The aim of this manifesto is the adjust this balance in order to raise the scientific credibility of the behavioural sciences. 

For more information, see, which provides links to the key papers supporting this approach. Please feel free to contact me concerning this manifesto.      



  • Kelly, R. E., Mansell, W., Smith, P., & Leigh, E. (2016).

    Appraisals of internal states and their consequences: Relationship to adolescent analogue bipolar symptoms. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44(2), 214-224. DOI:10.1017/S1352465815000132. Publication link: d6bb8653-6221-4a33-adad-3d7f0e3db9cb
  • Mansell, W., & Peter M. McEvoy (2016).

    A Test of the Core Process Account of Psychopathology in a Heterogenous Clinical Sample of Anxiety and Depression. A Case of the Blind Men and the Elephant?. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. . Publication link: 24fb729e-6385-47b1-bf49-7f9cf514d8e1
  • Morris, L., Mansell, W., & McEvoy, P. (2016).

    The Take Control Course: Conceptual rationale for the development of a transdiagnostic group for common mental health problems. Frontiers in Psychology. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00099. Publication link: 369e4126-4877-4769-809f-c4391ae5368d
  • Morris, L., Mansell, W., Emsley, R., Bates, R., Comiskey, J., Pistorius, E., & McEvoy, P. (2016).

    Prospective cohort feasibility study of a transdiagnostic group intervention for common mental health problems: The Take Control Course. Psychology & Psychotherapy, 89(2), 163-180. DOI:10.1111/papt.12070. Publication link: cec53fed-5f7c-44ed-993f-e45f5abbcaea | PubMed:26200798
  • Varese, F., Mansell, W., Pearson, L., & Tai, S. (2016).

    Thematic associations between personal goals and clinical and non-clinical voices (auditory verbal hallucinations).Psychosis, 8(1), 12-22. DOI:10.1080/17522439.2015.1040442. Publication link: ebc408db-2650-41e4-bb08-9d34bcf28ab5
  • Mansell, W. (2016).

    A positive mood cannot be too positive: How to utilise positive and negative clinical psychology in bipolar disorder. In Positive Clinical Psychology: An Integrative Approach to Studying and Improving Well-Being. New York: Wiley. . Publication link: df73da5f-0094-429e-acb4-4206552b5713





  • Carey, T. A., Kelly, R. A., Mansell, W., & Tai, S. J. (2012).

    What's therapeutic about the therapeutic relationship? A hypothesis for practice informed by Perceptual Control Theory. The Cognitive Behavioural Therapist, 5, 47-59. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X12000037. Publication link: 907f298d-3155-4b4e-997f-7a13a1830aa2
  • Dickens, C., Coventry, P., Khara, A., Bower, P., Mansell, W., & Bakerly, N. D. (2012).

    Perseverative negative cognitive processes are associated with depression in people with long-term conditions. Chronic Illness, 8(2), 102-111. DOI:10.1177/1742395311433058. Publication link: 0a0c297d-7d4d-4af0-8d06-cebb4b21c6b1
  • Eliades, M., Mansell, W., Stewart, A. J., & Blanchette, I. (2012).

    An investigation of belief-bias and logicality in reasoning with emotional contents. Thinking and Reasoning, 18(4), 461-479. DOI:10.1080/13546783.2012.713317. Publication link: 237cc238-315d-48e7-aa16-e4316b48702c
  • Kelly, R. E., Mansell, W., Sadhnani, V., & Wood, A. M. (2012).

    Positive and negative appraisals of the consequences of activated states uniquely relate to symptoms of hypomania and depression. Cognition and Emotion, 26(5), 899-906. DOI:10.1080/02699931.2011.613918. Publication link: d9766318-589c-41ea-b424-2f274d1efabd
  • Kelly, R. E., Wood, A. M., Shearman, K., Phillips, S., & Mansell, W. (2012).

    Encouraging acceptance of ambivalence using the expressive writing paradigm. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 85(2), 220-228. DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8341.2011.02023.x. Publication link: 5c046239-2dd1-4d9a-b6f9-68170c122b1e
  • McEvoy, P., Schauman, O., Mansell, W., & Morris, L. (2012).

    The experience of recovery from the perspective of people with common mental health problems: Findings from a telephone survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49(11), 1375-1382. DOI:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.06.010. Publication link: 1c83be7b-2eba-4bcb-a71c-4737678e3ad1
  • Schauman, O., & Mansell, W. (2012).

    Processes Underlying Ambivalence in Help-Seeking: The Loss of Valued Control Model. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 19(2), 107-124. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2850.2012.01277.x. Publication link: ed9837f4-70ce-4642-944e-0a2acf2889dc
  • Searson, R., Mansell, W., Lowens, I., & Tai, S. (2012).

    Think Effectively about Mood Swings (TEAMS): A case series of cognitive-behavioural therapy for bipolar disorders. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43(2), 770-779. DOI:10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.10.001. Publication link: 95e44bf8-25aa-4406-9263-45593a48893e | PubMed:22104659
  • Stevenson-Taylor, A. J. K., & Mansell, W. (2012).

    Exploring the Role of Art-making in Recovery, Change, and Self-understanding: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Interviews with Everyday Creative People. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 4(3), 104-130. DOI:doi:10.5539/ijps.v4n3p104. Publication link: 3462888c-bc37-4c00-8730-86fc2c1c5426
  • Totterdell, P., Kellett, S., & Mansell, W. (2012).

    Cognitive behavioural therapy for cyclothymia: Cognitive regulatory control as a mediator of mood change. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 40(4), 412-424. DOI:10.1017/S1352465812000070. Publication link: 0c6dc71a-8649-44c6-930f-39c8ce8d16a0
  • Wade, M., Wigg, L., & Mansell, W. (2012).

    “I don’t need your help!” Mood-dependent advice-taking in hypomania-prone individuals. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3, 639-649. DOI:10.5127/jep.018611. Publication link: 25e8967a-b417-4a39-b9c1-c44df90c9273
  • Webb, T. L., Sheeran, P., Totterdell, P., Miles, E., Mansell, W., & Baker, S. (2012).

    Using implementation intentions to overcome the effect of mood on risky behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 51(2), 330-345. DOI:10.1348/014466610X533623. Publication link: 0b46934c-bf9d-4f58-9194-ea0a33ce4b55
  • Mansell, W., Carey, T. A., & Tai, S. J. (2012).

    A Transdiagnostic CBT Using Method of Levels Therapy: Distinctive Series. London: Routledge.. Publication link: 4ebbc4e6-ce2e-4e05-99b5-8bd70d3f1ce8
  • Mansell, W., & Dryden, W. (Ed.) (2012).

    The Transdiagnostic Approach: The Importance of Formulating Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Control. In CBT Approaches to Counselling and Psychotherapy. Sage. . Publication link: 8cb413c9-fceb-4ced-a461-db4289d46f0d
  • Mansell, W., & Dryden, W. (Ed.) (2012).

    Working with Comorbidity in CBT: Using A Transdiagnostic Control Theory Model (TCTM). In The CBT Handbook. Sage. . Publication link: 83511651-7d1e-44db-af28-0245fc0b3b04
  • Mansell, W., Taylor, J., & Dryden, W. (Ed.) (2012).

    What is CBT?. In The CBT Handbook. Sage. . Publication link: 5e78fe1b-2ac7-42ab-a69f-8080fd1b5b4d
  • Mansell, W., Totterdell, P. (Ed.), & Niven, K. (Ed.) (2012).

    "Is it helpful to ask 'Why do I feel this way?'". In Should I Strap a Battery to my Head? (and Other Questions about Emotion). (pp. 129-138). Publication link: 0f87225e-60e3-4a95-aff6-155da46fc72c
  • Mansell, W., Totterdell, P. (Ed.), & Niven, K. (Ed.) (2012).

    "What happens when I feel bad about feeling good?". In Should I Strap a Battery to my Head? (and Other Questions about Emotion). (pp. 97-101). Publication link: 40e8ccf1-4b14-4a9d-900b-1a0228185e12



  • Gregory, J. D., Brewin, C. R., Mansell, W., & Donaldson, C. (2010).

    Intrusive memories and images in bipolar disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(7), 698-703. DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2010.04.005. Publication link: 234daac0-4e9f-46d0-b926-0fbdbe0d3eb2
  • Lee, R., Lam, D., Mansell, W., & Farmer, A. (2010).

    Sense of hyper-positive self, goal-attainment beliefs and coping strategies in bipolar i disorder. Psychological Medicine, 40(6), 967-975. DOI:10.1017/S0033291709991206. Publication link: 854dbcaf-e413-4044-9248-8617be3d7188
  • Mansell, W., Coupe, N., Powell, S., Pedley, R., Thomas, N., & Jones, S. A. (2010).

    The process of recovery from bipolar i disorder: A qualitative analysis of personal accounts in relation to an integrative cognitive model. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49(2), 193-215. DOI:10.1348/014466509X451447. Publication link: 8b9f2d70-4bbe-4448-9c7b-372c3bb6e44a
  • Pyle, A., & Mansell, W. (2010).

    Cognitive biases in hypomanic personality: Preliminary findings indicating the relevance of self-versus-other encoding and high-versus-low levels of activation. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38(4), 459-472. DOI:10.1017/S1352465810000299. Publication link: c07d5651-870d-4981-9947-1034b895be69
  • Reilly, E., & Mansell, W. (2010).

    The Relationship between the Experience of Mood Symptoms, Expectancy Judgment and a Person’s Current Concern. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 3, 81-94. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X10000085. Publication link: 593e7b29-0cb8-4699-a054-9f616cf20f18
  • Mansell, W., Stott, R., Salkovskis, P. M., Lavender, A., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2010).

    The Oxford Guide to Metaphors in CBT: Building Cognitive Bridges: Building Cognitive Bridges. Oxford University Press.. Publication link: bbf59f86-306a-4b80-9f25-93a6583b85e5
  • Mansell, W. (2010).

    Bipolar Disorders. In Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Mental Health Care, 2nd Edition.. Publication link: 3d18baa6-8eb6-4e97-b409-8c0bb45ac6a5
  • Mansell, W., Jones, S., Lobban, F., Cooke, A., Hemmingfield, J., Kinderman, P., ... Hanna, J. (2010).

    Understanding Bipolar Disorder: Why some people experience extreme mood states and what can help. British Psychological Society.. Publication link: ced626da-35be-45dc-8326-9e36d116c809


  • Mansell, W., & Hodson, S. (2009).

    Imagery and Memories of the Social Self in People with Bipolar Disorders: Empirical Evidence, Phenomenology, Theory and Therapy. (Imagery and the Threatened Self: Perspectives on Mental Imagery and the Self in Cognitive Therapy). Routledge.. Publication link: 366ab243-f4ec-4fd0-ba7c-0d639d32b79c
  • Bird, T., Mansell, W., & Tai, S. (2009).

    Method of Levels: initial steps in assessing adherence and the development of a qualitative framework for mapping clients’ control hierarchies. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 2(3), 145-166. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X09990158. Publication link: 4dfff468-6f4c-4a72-be37-e70267654507
  • Carey, T. A., & Mansell, W. (2009).

    Show us a behaviour without a cognition and we'll show you a rock rolling down a hill. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 2, 123-133. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X0999016X. Publication link: dbb582cd-f6e5-43c7-9758-0ae98e82447a
  • Mansell, W. (2009).

    Perceptual Control Theory as an Integrative Framework and Method of Levels as a Cognitive Therapy: What are the Pros and Cons?. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 2, 178-196. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X08000093. Publication link: 378b7e71-0031-47b1-96a8-f0b58da738ac
  • Mansell, W. (2009).

    Understanding Control and Utilising Control Theory in the Science and Practice of CBT. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 2, 115-117. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X09990146. Publication link: bf4d8f6c-768a-4588-a200-67e8ee764b83
  • Mansell, W., & Carey, T. A. (2009).

    A century of psychology and psychotherapy: Is an understanding of 'control' the missing link between theory, research, and practice?. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 82(3), 337-353. DOI:10.1348/147608309X432526. Publication link: fa1554b2-5e2f-4540-9424-21147eb1bc24
  • Mansell, W., Harvey, A., Watkins, E., & Shafran, R. (2009).

    Conceptual foundations of the transdiagnostic approach to CBT. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 23(1), 6-19. DOI:10.1891/0889-8391.23.1.6. Publication link: b53cdc47-9c17-4b38-a5a5-63cd983d7b18
  • White, L. O., & Mansell, W. (2009).

    Failing to ponder? Delusion-prone individuals rush to conclusions. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 16(2), 111-124. DOI:10.1002/cpp.607. Publication link: f594df43-811c-4b7c-9c15-f17641c2ae29


  • Higginson, S., & Mansell, W. (2008).

    What is the mechanism of psychological change? A qualitative analysis of six individuals who experienced personal change and recovery. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 81(3), 309-328. DOI:10.1348/147608308X320125. Publication link: 1a8afbde-7b3c-4cec-8eea-54d2a30faad7
  • Lam, D., & Mansell, W. (2008).

    Mood-Dependent Cognitive Change in a Man With Bipolar Disorder Who Cycles Every 24 Hours. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 15(3), 255-262. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpra.2007.09.002. Publication link: f1c8c4ab-ba4a-4876-8980-10bbb2625ffa
  • Mansell, W. (2008).

    Commentary on "Contexts of CBT": A Weak Case Against a Straw Man But A Strong Case for an Informed Debate About How to Improve Access to Effective Psychological Therapies. European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling - Special Issue on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 10, 261-269. . Publication link: 2dd63fb7-aea8-4a74-b767-6352a47f5693
  • Mansell, W. (2008).

    Keep It Simple - The Transdiagnostic Approach to CBT. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy - Special Issue on Transdiagnostic Approaches to CBT [W.Mansell Ed.], 1. . Publication link: 0a57b098-68d0-4584-8e8a-6f29b00b4db2
  • Mansell, W. (2008).

    The seven C's of CBT: A consideration of the future challenges for cognitive behaviour therapy. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36(6), 641-649. DOI:10.1017/S1352465808004700. Publication link: d58c82f0-ec2b-43f6-ba61-c77f99739432
  • Mansell, W., & Pedley, R. (2008).

    The ascent into mania: A review of psychological processes associated with the development of manic symptoms. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(3), 494-520. DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2007.07.010. Publication link: f7cb9db9-96c7-4bfd-94b7-8b8bf7259581
  • Mansell, W., Harvey, A., Watkins, E., & Shafran, R. (2008).

    Cognitive Behavioural Processes Across Psychological Disorders: A Review of the Utility and Validity of the Transdiagnostic Approach. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy - Special Issue on Transdiagnostic Approaches to CBT [W.Mansell Ed.], 1. . Publication link: c1d0247b-fceb-427d-a362-706691f9f792
  • Seal, K., Mansell, W., & Mannion, H. (2008).

    What lies between hypomania and bipolar disorder? A qualitative analysis of 12 non-treatment-seeking people with a history of hypomanic experiences and no history of major depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 81(1), 33-53. DOI:10.1348/147608307X209896. Publication link: 88415326-db80-4768-aafc-43039115a7eb
  • Taylor, P., & Mansell, W. (2008).

    "I Get So Energetic and Dominating!" A study of hypomanic personality and conflicting self-perception during activated states in a co-operative task. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(6), 483-487. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.025. Publication link: 16ff8abb-3938-4284-a2ea-2beb38da1534
  • Mansell, W. (2008).

    What is CBT Really and How Can We Enhance The Impact of Effective Psychotherapies such as CBT?. In Against and For CBT: Towards and Constructive Dialogue.. Publication link: 4887a800-10c3-4edc-a657-396b7cc26e45



  • Jones, S., Mansell, W., & Waller, L. (2006).

    Appraisal of hypomania-relevant experiences: Development of a questionnaire to assess positive self-dispositional appraisals in bipolar and behavioural high risk samples. Journal of Affective Disorders, 93(1-3), 19-28. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2006.01.017. Publication link: 1ff85304-40bd-4ef5-bbf1-a2dda97c64bd
  • Mansell, W. (2006).

    The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI): A pilot study to select cognitions that are elevated in individuals with bipolar disorder compared to non-clinical controls. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 34(4), 467-476. DOI:10.1017/S1352465806003109. Publication link: 29088cdd-7174-40b7-b09e-d4e258aeb8d4
  • Mansell, W., & Jones, S. H. (2006).

    The Brief-HAPPI: A questionnaire to assess cognitions that distinguish between individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and non-clinical controls. Journal of Affective Disorders, 93(1-3), 29-34. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2006.04.004. Publication link: e5217144-f2ac-4c6f-b64a-9225f52193db
  • Mansell, W., & Lam, D. (2006).

    "I Won't Do What You Tell Me!": Elevated mood and the assessment of advice-taking in euthymic bipolar I disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(12), 1787-1801. DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2006.01.002. Publication link: 771f50ea-fe48-4411-9f62-3bd48d9a56ed
  • Mansell, W. (2006).

    The Bluffer's Guide to Psychology. No publisher name.. Publication link: ac24d94e-218b-4bad-8232-3fdf5a604d9b
  • Mansell, W., & Scott, J. (2006).

    Dysfunctional Beliefs in Bipolar Disorders. In Psychological Approaches to Bipolar Disorder. Oxford University Press. . Publication link: 7f2dbfc0-2abb-4355-9009-c5ebb67d0c84


  • Holmes, E. A., Brown, R. J., Mansell, W., Fearon, R. P., Hunter, E. C. M., Frasquilho, F., & Oakley, D. A. (2005).

    Are there two qualitatively distinct forms of dissociation? A review and some clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(1), 1-23. DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2004.08.006. Publication link: dfab36d7-eee1-4cb5-90b8-d4aa6a23b12a
  • Mansell, W. (2005).

    Control theory and psychopathology: An integrative approach. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 78(2), 141-178. DOI:10.1348/147608304X21400. Publication link: 898b2d0e-f237-4cc0-b72f-ef6c5cd276ce
  • Mansell, W., Scott, J., & Colom, F. (2005).

    The nature and treatment of depression in bipolar disorder: Implications for psychological investigation. Clinical Psychology Review. . Publication link: 70a01e19-c37a-401b-99f1-6d214bc7e93d
  • Mansell, W., & Lam, D. (2005).

    Bipolar Disorder. In Improving Outcomes and Preventing Relapse Following Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: A Clinical Handbook.. Publication link: 73a259cb-fcb6-4fb3-97ac-4cb3bc4b3a1d






  • Mansell, W. (2000).

    Conscious appraisal and the modification of automatic processes in anxiety. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 28(2), 99-120. . Publication link: 51a7959c-ee5e-4f83-9d75-8b3688cdaeea


Research projects